Responsibility for the Organization, Distribution and Use of Substances and Methods Prohibited for Use in Sports
This article is devoted to modelling the criminal liability for the organization, distribution and use of substances and (or) methods prohibited in sports. The authors have chosen their own models of criminal responsibility, developed in the theory of criminal law in the sphere of the use of substances and methods prohibited in sports as the objects for the study.Authors substantiated and highlighted the expediency of establishing criminal liability for the use of substances and (or) methods, prohibited in sports for different types of subjects: for a professional athlete; for a non-professional athlete; for officials; for medical personnel organizing the use of substances and (or) methods prohibited in sports; for trainers and other individuals. The article also discusses the process of distribution of drugs banned in sports, in which other individuals related to professional sports might also be involved.As these individuals might also act as: former professional athletes who retained connections and contacts in the world of professional sports; directors and managers of sports teams; other individuals directly related to professional sports and contacts that allow the distribution of prohibited drugs and methods.As a result of the study, the authors proposed to supplement Chapter 22 of the Criminal Code with two new articles: Art. 184.1 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation "Organization of the use of substances and (or) methods prohibited in sports" and art. 184.2 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation "Distribution of substances banned in sports".