Productivity Improvements in Education: A Replay
Productivity is a measure of how well resources are utilized to produce output. It is defined as a ratio of outputs to inputs. Then to manage productivity is to achieve more outputs for the same inputs, usually measured in money terms or the same outputs for less input. The modern notion of productivity includes both organizational efficiency and effectiveness. In education outputs are principally represented by teaching, outcomes by learning. The definition of productivity should not be confused with efficiency and effectiveness. Effectiveness is a measure of the outcome of an operational unit like a school or a university department. It is a measure of how well an operational unit was able to accomplish its objective. Efficiency is a measure of the degree to which an operational unit utilizes appropriate resources in the right manner. The purpose of this paper is to analyze and critique the assumptions and developments of productivity measures, present productivity models with the main factors that affect behavioural and cognitive learning and to focus on the developments of productivity improvements in elementary, secondary and higher education.