Gender as a Differentiating Factor in the Process of Exiting Unemployment: The Case of Poland
Purpose: The aim of the article is to assess and compare the impact of gender on the probability of a form of de-registration from the labour office in Poland in two different research periods: a period of the financial crisis and economic recovery. Design/Methodology/Approach: The study used survival analysis methods. The cumulative incidence function (CIF) was used to assess the probability of a form of exiting unemployment. To investigate the differences in influence of gender, the Gray test was used. The study was carried out in subgroups separated by the characteristics of unemployed people. Individual data describing persons registered in the Poviat Labour Office were used in the study. Findings: Gender was a feature that differentiated the process of exiting unemployment. In the period of the highest unemployment, the unemployed more often looked for a job through the labour office (mainly women). On the other hand, in the period of economic recovery, they were more inclined (regardless of gender) to resign from cooperation with the office. Women used subsidized work more often than men. Practical Implications: Gender is a determining factor in some socio-economic phenomena. The identification of women's and men's behaviour in the labour market will allow for effective social policy. It will also allow for the correct targeting of professional activation tools so as not to aggravate gender-based discrimination. Such actions may contribute to the improvement of the quality of life in the modern world. Originality/value: In labour market research, researchers often focus on the unemployed taking up work. Other forms of de-registration were also analyzed, including resignation from cooperation with the office. It is important to identify such behaviours and correctly target professional activation tools.