National Strategic Documents on Cluster Policy as a Source of Challenges for Cluster Management in Poland
Purpose: This paper is aimed to assess the evolution of Polish cluster policy, as well as, to identify the key challenges for cluster management in Poland, which result from the framework of the conditions described by the national strategic documents in the field of cluster policy. Literature review reveals a substantial shortage of publications and research in the area of the issue under discussion, and presents the relevant research gap. Design/Methodology/Approach: So far, no document strictly dedicated to shaping the cluster policy in Poland has been developed. The following research methods were used to achieve the research goals: the desk research to identify and analyse the relevant national strategic documents, as well as the case study method. Findings: A detailed analysis of the national strategic documents on cluster policy with particular emphasis being put on the current European Union’s programming period of 2014-2020 revealed a significant number of references to strategic documents of both long- and medium-term nature, as well as, a particular inconsistency. It seems that this lack of coherence in the framework conditions for cluster management leads to negative effects of the functioning of cluster organisations in Poland. Practical Implications: Cluster policy occupies an important place in the economic policy of the European Union. Despite popularising the idea of clusters, a document strictly dedicated to cluster policy has not yet been developed. Moreover, the provisions shaping the cluster policy in Poland are presented in many strategic documents, as a result of which implementation of the policy, employing coherent executive documents and then support instruments, becomes difficult. Originality/Value: The value of the conducted research in relatively a new field is the identification of relevant strategic documents, the provisions of which make up the cluster policy in Poland, as well as its assessment in terms of the role and scope of impact on cluster organisations, and, consequently, the challenges for cluster management.