Activation of Investment Processes in the Context of Operation of Special Economic Zones in Poland
Purpose: The paper aims to present the potential of activation of investment processes in special economic zones in Poland. Design/Methodology/Approach: The study's general purpose was to diagnose the status of investments in projects implemented by companies as part of special economic zones in Poland. The study was carried out by analyzing reports of special economic zones forming a part of the Polish Economic Zone. Two economic zones were selected for analysis, namely the Katowice Special Economic Zone (KSEZ) and the Pomorze Special Economic Zone (PSEZ). These zones clearly differ concerning the permissible level of regional aid. Data from the years 2014-2019 were analyzed on account of the introduction, in 2014, of the so-called new map of regional aid for years 2014-2020. Findings: This paper is devoted to the issue of investments and the basic terminology accompanying it. Definitions and main types of investments were specified, and results of studies about the activation of investment processes in special economic zones for the benefit of the region between 2014 and 2019 were presented. Enterprises investments are dominant in analyzed zones. Simultaneously, more companies invest in KSEZ, huge ones. The SME sector's interest in both zones is comparable, resulting from too high amounts that must be invested in making use of the SEZ aid. Practical Implications: The current legal solutions and the applicable quality requirements increase the significance of special economic zones in forming growth and development processes based on a set of criteria relying on sustainable attributes. Both the instrument of special economic zones and their operation concept contribute to the formation of sustainable processes in the actual sphere. Liquidation of territorial restrictions offers an impulse to create an investment climate and the possibility of its use by all local governments to activate local investment zones and primarily the opportunity for such an instrument to be used by every company that is developing and investing. Originality/Value: The article is, hence, an attempt to fill the gap in creating an investment climate. Furthermore, studies concerning corporate investments in special economic zones may be an important source of information that enterprises can apply to determine further development areas.