Agricultural Trade Competitiveness of EU Candidate Countries and Eastern Partnership Countries
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine agricultural trade competitiveness of EU candidate countries (CCs) and Eastern Partnership countries (EPCs) compared to Polish agriculture, based on available 1992–2017 EUROSTAT and FAOSTAT data. Design/Methodology/Approach: This paper uses selected indicators of trade competitiveness. Findings: The study attempts to tell which of the countries covered are in a position to become competitive in European Union (EU) markets. As shown by the calculated competitiveness indicators, compared to Polish agriculture (which is competitive in respect of many agri-food products), some of the countries surveyed are also likely to become competitive players in the Union market. Due to increasing specialization indicator, Belarus and Ukraine are well positioned to become competitive in the dairy market. The market for cereals is dominated by three countries: Moldova, Ukraine and Serbia which demonstrate high levels of SI, CR and XRCA. In turn, the largest group of countries covered by this analysis specialize in fruit and vegetable exports, and are likely to attain the highest competitiveness levels in that very market. Practical Implications: The study of the foreign trade competitiveness using statistical methods is an important element in testing economic theories in the field of competitiveness research in the CCs and EPCs and it shows which countries may become competitive in the future in the EU market. Originality/Value: Showing the importance of foreign trade in the CCs and EPCs with the EU we can observe its impact on the future integration process of the CCs and EPCs. The results of the research are important from the point of view of the contribution to the economy of European integration, both in theoretical and empirical terms, but above all in the field of sectoral policy, which is the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). A comprehensive approach to the subject of research and its multidirectional nature, as well as the obtained results will be important both for the agricultural policy of the studied countries, as well as for the CAP and for the Polish agriculture.