Open Innovation Models Implemented by Polish Food Industry Enterprises from Lublin Region
Purpose: The aim of the article is to identify models of open innovation implemented by Polish enterprises of food industry in Lubelszczyzna. Design/Methodology/Approach: The aim of the research was realized based on the analysis of the literature on the subject and the results of own research conducted using the case study method. The information was collected by means of direct interviews with the representatives of the management staff, and the basis for research was the original questionnaire survey. Findings: The researched companies included external entities in the implemented innovation processes in a very diverse way. The number of partners co-developing innovative solutions within the open model in particular companies ranged from 1 to 25 partners, and the level of their involvement was very different. In the majority of cases the opening included all stages of the innovation process - from the stage of conception to the implementation of innovation and the dominating scheme of opening was the centripetal process, consisting of acquiring ideas and solutions from the environment and building relations with external partners in order to gain access to their knowledge resources allowing to increase the effectiveness of implemented innovative activities. Practical Implications: The research revealed how the companies involved external partners in their innovation processes and what effects in the form of innovative solutions they achieved thanks to the cooperation. The presented innovative practices in terms of applying the concept of open innovation can be a recommendation for other food industry enterprises. Originality/Value: The multitude of premises indicating the legitimacy of applying the concept of open innovation in traditional industries revealed the need to carry out research showing how the model of open innovation is implemented by food industry enterprises.