Cooperation between Science, Business, and Administration under the Triple Helix Model in European States: The Example of Poland
Purpose: The primary goal of the paper is to evaluate the cooperation between representatives of scientific, economic, and administrative sectors in Poland against the background of selected European countries, identify the relevant barriers, and provide recommendations for the improvement thereof. The methodological goal is to develop a research model within the Triple Helix Readiness concept and a diagnostic tool to facilitate the measurement of readiness of the Polish science, business and administration sectors to engage in practical cooperation. Design/Methodology/Approach: To those ends, a triangulation of research methods was employed using diagnostic surveys and computer-assisted self-interviewing (CASI) techniques. The research tool used was an online questionnaire sent out to the relevant stakeholders (17 municipalities, 150 higher education institutions (HEIs), and 340 enterprises). The results were processed using elements of descriptive statistics. A hierarchical cluster analysis based on Ward's method was used to grade the cities and group them in terms of likelihood readiness to engage in cooperation with external entities. Findings: As evidenced by the results, readiness to engage in cooperation with external entities depends on many factors. Economic operators' perspective includes the advancement of IT systems, availability of modern knowledge management tools, research and development activity, ownership or registered and submitted patents, trademarks, and training budgets. On the other hand, universities highlight the possibility of commercializing and marketing their advanced solutions. Originality/Value: The principal added value provided by the paper is its contribution in the form of the scientific model and research tool applicable to the assessment of cooperation readiness of scientific, economic, and administrative entities within the framework of the triple helix approach, as well as recommendations of improvements to the effectiveness of such cooperation. The employed methodology could also be applied in comparative analyses of other European countries.