Evaluation of Modal Shift in Freight Transport: Case Study of Poland
Purpose: This paper aimed to assess the degree of implementation of the modal shift concept in international transport flows to/from Poland. Design/Methodology/Approach: The first stage of the research study included the literature review indicating the Polish and EU projects aimed at promoting the transport modes being an alternative for road transport. Next, data regarding Poland’s international trade were prepared and confronted with the assumed targets. Findings: In international freight transport to/from Poland, i.e., transportation of both imported and exported cargoes, an increase in the significance of road transport is noticeable. It is possible to discern periods when the share of road transport dropped (imports in 2005-2010 and exports in 2010-2015), nevertheless, despite measures taken at the national and supranational level, a desired modal shift from road transport to rail transport or inland shipping or short sea shipping was not achieved. It can also be noticed that rail transport was more often used in imports than in exports. Practical Implications: The obtained findings, which specified the degree of implementation of the modal shift concept on the example of Poland, may be an indication for the entities that set priorities in economic policies regarding the level of effectiveness of measures included in the prepared documents/programs. Originality/Value: The literature still lacks comprehensive research studies that verify the implementation of the modal shift concept at the level of individual countries. This paper demonstrates the effectiveness of implemented strategies and programs in the example of Poland. Moreover, it proposes changes to be considered by decision-makers who shape the goals and tools of economic policies and differences regarding management decisions.