Adaptation of Polish Enterprises to Industry 4.0 Model
Purpose: The aim of the paper is to present results of empirical research on adjustment of industrial enterprises in Poland to the conditions of Industry 4.0 Design/Methodology/Approach: Based on the analysis of the literature on the subject, the main features of the Industry 4.0 model were determined and then the main dimensions of empirical research were designed. The questionnaire survey covered 100 industrial enterprises from 19 industries operating throughout Poland. The questions were closed questions, related to the 1-5 (Likert) scale, and the 0-1 scale. Findings: Adaptations of enterprises to Industry 4.0 were sought in 6 dimensions: 1/ changes in industrial manufacturing paradigms, 2/ changes in manufacturing technologies, 3/ changes in Information and Communication Technologies, 4/ changes in human capital, 5/ changes in supporting processes, 6/ changes in enterprise agility. Considering technical infrastructure, manufacturing technologies, information technologies and the integration of these technologies, the potential close to Industry 4.0 has only a dozen or so percent of the surveyed companies. Research limitations / implications: Only large and medium-sized enterprises were included in the research, as the pilot study indicated problems related to the low level of knowledge and understanding of the topic among small business owners. Moreover, this article is mainly limited to the presentation of quantitative data on the structure and frequency of phenomena. Practical Implications: The results of the study show the gap between the current state of industrial development in Poland and the global level determined by the Industry 4.0 model. This may be helpful in shaping the directions of raising the competitiveness of Polish enterprises. Originality/Value: Partial research results on changing industrial manufacturing paradigms and adapting maintenance systems to Industry 4.0 were published in 2020 by Pawlowski K. (2020), Pawlowski E. (2020), Trzcielinski S. (2020). This article is the first synthesis of the whole research.