International Evidence on Convergence and Openness
In this paper we examine for both economic convergence and openness convergence across the global economy and within specific regions. We find that convergence in openness is much more profound than income convergence. Moreover, convergence within regions takes place faster than convergence across the globe. We then examine for the effects of trade openness on income convergence. We use both trade openness indicators based on actual trade volumes as well as indices that rank countries according to trade policy openness. Finally, we consider the effects of such indices on openness convergence. We discuss our results in the context of the regionalism versus globalization debate.